For general technical notes go to Electronics-general-notes.html

For solutions to common problems go to Electronics-common-solutions.html

General information

The electronics for this piece can be run with a Max patch including reverberation and harmonizers.

In both rehearsal and performance the sound engineer/musician should alter the levels of reverberation and harmonizers as indicated in the score and adjust the relative levels of the ensemble and electronics on the mixing desk, according to the given context (musical interpretation, equipment, acoustics of the performance space).

Alternatively, the piece can be played without computers, using external reverberation and harmonizer processors as in the original version.


latest version does require Max installation

Technical requirements for the current version

- Macintosh computer equipped with an external audio interface compatible with Max (cf:, e.g. Motu:, Digidesign:, RME:

  1. - Microphones for the flute, harpsichord and cello

  2. - Mixer & stereo diffusion (possibly return monitors for the musicians)

Technical requirements for the original version (or alternative version without computer)

- General reverberation (e.g. Lexicon PCM81)

- Harmonizers (e.g. Yamaha SPX90 or any dual pitch shifting device) - see ‘Harmonizers’ for parameters

- Microphones for the flute, harpsichord and cello

- Mixer & stereo diffusion (possibly return monitors for the musicians)

Harmonizers (for the original or alternative version)

Two harmonizers should be set to produce microtonal pitch shifting, the transposition being about 50 cents (1/4 tone) on either side of the input signal.

If using the Yamaha SPX90 harmonizer, select programme 22 (pitch change B) and set the parameters as follows:

pitch1 +0 / fine1 +45 cents/ delay1 20ms

pitch2 +0/ fine2 –50 cents/ delay2 15ms

Performance notes

The amount of amplification required naturally depends on the performance space, but it should never cover the acoustic sound of the instruments.
The ideal sound is a clear and rich 'close’ sound. The microphones should be placed as close to the instruments as possible.
The general level should be rather loud, but not painfully so.